Transducer play a crucial role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another. It is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is changed into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer: There are 2 types of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers. Active transducers: Active transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical energy itself. Thermocouple, 3 Axis Load Cell and a lot more are the most effective examples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied for the structure, it creates an electrical charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
Piezo Transducer: A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any type of piezo mechanism could be known as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and therefore are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The benefit of a piezo speaker spanning a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based on Torque Transducer. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while lowering the input power concurrently, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer: In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are generally known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally employed to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors: Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used along with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not produce a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great option for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when cutting edge performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators: If operated under the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping: Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to give you the controller the right information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the right amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping: Any sort of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it hdjjdy cause. In case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system with a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out as well as the work piece can now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is often used in fast Miniature Force Sensor for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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